Management System Success is Management Success


 Looking for SUCCESS? In safety, or in any other area?

To find out more, go to the Succes in Safety page to find out more.

[1] Risk Management, Safety and Control of Loss - Protecting Your Organization

[2] Making Your Future - In Business and in Other Parts of Life 



My books Success in Safety Improvement Model Management System Success Improvement Process 17-Step Process Improvement Process Rating Management System Structure Management System Content Improving the Management System The Audit Management System Rating International Safety Rating System Accidents and Incidents Accident Investigation Protocol Safety Opinion Survey

Direct Causes of Accidents


 Direct causes of accidents - leading to unwanted events and losses


The basic assumption here is that the events that lead to the consequences that we see are more often than not triggered by someone doing something in a certain environment. We divide the direct causes in: (1) causes that are related to a person and an act, and (2) causes that are related to the (work) environment or conditions.  


Direct causes of accidents, incidents and other unwanted events are divided in two main categories:  

We use the term "substandard" to indicate that there must be a right or "standard" way of doing things when it comes to acts and right or standard situations or environments when it comes to conditions. "Standard" meaning safe, good, without undue risks implying that the tasks and conditions need to be adapted to the people doing the work in the particular environment.


The simple 2 D model above seems to indicate that we are mainly concerned with the acts of people carrying out work directly prior to the unwanted event. But that is because the model is a simplification and you should keep in mind that the actual situation is more complex. Sometimes there is only a thin line between direct causes and basic causes. The substandard act could have been done by a person at a different level in the organization, further away from the unwanted event and at a different time. For example: lack of  adequate training to carry out work could be the cause of a substandard act by the person on the job. But, if so, could the “underlying” act have been committed by the supervisor or HR department not providing proper training? Or by higher management not requiring proper training through the management system? Or did the purchasing department buy the cheaper product to create a substandard condition? Or was the substandard condition created by the person designing the work environment or installation?  


Basic causes may exist because (1) there is no "standard way" if doing things, (ii) the standard way is not being updated, (iii) substandard work practices are being tolerated by supervision and management, (iv) carrying out work according to the standard way of doing things is considered "for sissies".


 Not for Sissies:





Substandard conditions or situations may exist because: (i) they are designed that way, (ii) there is no proper management of change program, (iii) they are not corrected when found, (iv) there is no proper inspection program to find the substandard conditions, (v) there is no housekeeping program, (vi) substandard conditions are being tolerated by supervision and management, (vii) they are seen as "part of the normal work environment", etcetera. 


Substandard acts and conditions are closely related. A substandard condition or situation may be created though a substandard act by a person, operational, managerial or staff. Once the substandard condition is there, the act of another person may be looked upon as a substandard while in fact it was the condition that led to the unwanted event. 


Direct causes of unwanted events can often be seen at the actual work site and may be found during execution of procedures such as work permits or Last Minute Risk Assessment (LMRA). They can be seen during formal inspections/observations and, preferably, should be noted and acted upon during day-today operations. Since direct causes relate to acts and conditions that may be there only momentarily, they may also be considered during incident or accident imaging exercises asking the "what if" questions. 


Substandard acts and conditions can be found during investigation of unwanted events, leading to remedial actions which may include revision of work procedures or changing the work environment.  

One of the main functions of management is to control loss

To close the gap between "practice" and "theory"

Between "what and how it is done" and "what and how it should have been done"

Between "substandard" how it is and "standard" how it should be





NEXT PAGE is Substandard Acts 

If you want to read my website pages from the beginning go to: THE HOME PAGE



View Willem Top's profile on LinkedIn  
Search website
© Copyright 2001/2012 Willem Top